# Circuit breaker and Hystrix: part three - timeout

In the previous article, we reviewed the max concurrent request number service degradation strategy. But some detailed techniques are not explained very clearly, which will be talked about in this article. And we will analyze timeout strategy as well.

### Timeout

Compared with max concurrent request number strategy, timeout is very straightforward to understand.

As we mentioned in the previous article, the core logic of hystrix is inside the GoC function. GoC function internally runs two goroutines. You already see that the first goroutine contains the logic to send request to the target service and the strategy of max concurrent request number. How about the second goroutine? Let’s review it as follows:

Note that A Timer is created with the timeout duration value from the settings. And a select statement lets this goroutine wait until one case condition receives value from the channel. The timeout case is just the 3nd one (when the first two cases are not triggered), which will run fallback logic with ErrTimeout error message.

So far you should be clear about the main structure and functionalities of these two goroutines. But in detail, there are two Golang techniques need your attention: sync.Once and sync.Cond.

### sync.Once

You may already notice the following code block, which is repeated several times inside GoC function.

returnOnce is type of sync.Once, which makes sure that the callback function of Do method only runs once among different goroutines.

In this specific case, it can guarantee that both returnTicket() and reportAllEvent() execute only once. This really makes sense, because if returnTicket() runs multiple times for one GoC call, then the current concurrent request number will not be correct, right?

I wrote another article about sync.Once in detail, you can refer to that article for more in-depth explanation.

### sync.Cond

The implementation of returnTicket function goes as follows:

ticketCond is a condition variable, and in Golang it is type of sync.Cond.

Condition variable is useful in communication between different goroutines. Concretely, Wait method of sync.Condwill hung the current goroutine, and Signal method will wake up the blocking goroutine to continue executing.

In hystrix case , when ticketChecked is false, which means the current GoC call is not finished and the ticket should not be returned yet. So ticketCond.Wait() is called to block this goroutine and wait until the GoC call is completed which is notified by Signal method.

Note that the above two lines of code are always called together. ticketChecked is set to true means that the current GoC call is finished and the ticket is ready to return. Moreover, the Wait method to hang the goroutine is placed inside a for loop, which is also a best practise technique.

For more explanation about sync.Cond, please refer to my another article.

### Fallback

Finally, let’s see how fallback function is called when the target service is not responsive.

Let’s recall that each GoC call will create a new command instance. And fallback function will be assigned to the field with the same name, which will be used later.

As we see in above sections, errorWithFallback method is triggered when timeout or max concurrent request number threshold is met.

errorWithFallback method will run the fallback by calling tryFallback and report the metric events such as fallback-failure and fallback-success(will discuss metric collection in next article).

### Summary

In this article, we talked about the timeout strategy which is the simplest one among all the strategies provided by hystrix. Some detailed Golang techniques are reviewed as well to have a better understand the complex code logic.

In the next article let’s see how to collect metrics in hystrix to realize the error rate strategy.